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Most Windows text files use "ANSI", "OEM", "Unicode" or "UTF-8" encoding. What Windows terminology calls "ANSI encodings" are usually single-byte ISO/IEC 8859 encodings (i. e. ANSI in the Microsoft Notepad menus is really "System Code Page", non-Unicode, legacy encoding), except for in locales such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean that require double-byte character sets. ANSI encodings were traditionally used as default system locales within Windows, before the transition to Unicode. By contrast, OEM encodings, also known as DOS code pages, were defined by IBM for use in the original IBM PC text mode display system. They typically include graphical and line-drawing characters common in DOS applications. "Unicode"-encoded Windows text files contain text in UTF-16 Unicode Transformation Format. Such files normally begin with Byte Order Mark (BOM), which communicates the endianness of the file content. Although UTF-8 does not suffer from endianness problems, many Windows programs (i. e. Notepad) prepend the contents of UTF-8-encoded files with BOM, to differentiate UTF-8 encoding from other 8-bit encodings.

Because of their simplicity, text files are commonly used for storage of information. They avoid some of the problems encountered with other file formats, such as endianness , padding bytes, or differences in the number of bytes in a machine word . Further, when data corruption occurs in a text file, it is often easier to recover and continue processing the remaining contents. A disadvantage of text files is that they usually have a low entropy , meaning that the information occupies more storage than is strictly necessary.

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Chocolate. Milk, unsweetened, dark, or even blond chocolate is the most well-liked confection around the world. And those who have sweet tooth find hot chocolate the best drink ever. This cocoa product has gained popularity due to its rich flavor, creamy consistency, and anti-stress effect. Brief history. Chocolate was consumed as bitter beverage, not as solid bar, for 90% of its history. Mayans and Aztecs were the fist who brewed this bitter drink from cacao beans. Ancient Maya regularly grew cacao trees and Aztecs got it later. They called chocolate “Xocolatl” that means “bitter water”. So chocolate was unknown thing until Europeans discovered America and tasted food of native cuisine. At first the drink was very bitter and foreigners didn’t like it, so they add sugar or honey to the beverage. In the 1600s chocolate was popular drink across Europe because it was believed to have health-giving property. At that time it cost too high and was served only to elite class. But in the beginning of the 18th century price for chocolate became affordable and the drink turned out to be wide-spread. First chocolate bar in traditional solid form was created in the 19th century by Joseph Fry, but his product didn’t attract much attention because it was bitter. And later milk was added to the product that made it the most famous confection. Varieties of chocolate. Unsweetened chocolate is the purest kind of chocolate because it consists of only cocoa solids and as a result it’s extremely bitter. So this kind of chocolate is not suitable for eating but it’s best for baking because it lends intense chocolate flavor to baked products. Milk chocolate is considered to be very popular variety of chocolate with which most people are familiar. Unlike dark chocolate it includes high percentage of powdered or condensed milk. And dark chocolate is made of no or very little milk and is loaded with nutrients that can positively affect your health. Hot chocolate is heated drink that’s great choice for cold fall and winter days. It consists of melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk, and sugar or chocolate syrup. Some brands include powdered milk to the chocolate so that the drink can be made with only hot water. Blond chocolate is new variety of confection. It is caramel-colored chocolate with slightly salty taste and intense biscuit flavor. Blond chocolate is introduced by Valrhona and is called Dulcey. Chocolate flavors are quite different. They range from usual ones such as cherry, coconut, mint, orange, fudge, and caramel to pretty unusual. Extraordinary chocolate bars with chili, curry, ginger, wasabi, chai tea, or cheese flavors are also available.