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GALLERY: Landscape

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The word landscape (landscipe or landscaef) arrived in England—and therefore into the English language—after the fifth century, following the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons; these terms referred to a system of human-made spaces on the land. The term landscape emerged around the turn of the sixteenth century to denote a painting whose primary subject matter was natural scenery. Land (a word from Germanic origin) may be taken in its sense of something to which people belong (as in England being the land of the English). The suffix ‑scape is equivalent to the more common English suffix ‑ship. The roots of ‑ship are etymologically akin to Old English sceppan or scyppan, meaning to shape. The suffix ‑schaft is related to the verb schaffen, so that ‑ship and shape are also etymologically linked. The modern form of the word, with its connotations of scenery, appeared in the late sixteenth century when the term landschap was introduced by Dutch painters who used it to refer to paintings of inland natural or rural scenery. The word landscape, first recorded in 1598, was borrowed from a Dutch painters' term. The popular conception of the landscape that is reflected in dictionaries conveys both a particular and a general meaning, the particular referring to an area of the Earth's surface and the general being that which can be seen by an observer. An example of this second usage can be found as early as 1662 in the Book of Common Prayer:

This year we had the pleasure to ride at Bikepark Serfaus Fiss Ladis again and later in the season we were invited to cover the IXS Rookies Cup (and ride some more ourselves). Man, we love this bike park so much! It is very well built and perfectly maintained. Those trailbuilders know what they are doing! 

The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art , going back well over a thousand years in both cases. The recognition of a spiritual element in landscape art is present from its beginnings in East Asian art, drawing on Daoism and other philosophical traditions, but in the West only becomes explicit with Romanticism .

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The word crisis in Chinese language. Trying to inspire the public in hard times in the West and in Russia is often cited as an example the Chinese word for "crisis" (危机 wēijī - "veitsi"), which is represented as the combination of two hieroglyphs: "danger" and "opportunity". However, this is a beautiful interpretation is wrong, because the character 机 jī in addition to "opportunity" has other meanings. The American linguist Benjamin Zimmer has traced the history of the use of "veitsi" in the English language until an anonymous article in the room of the missionary magazine of China from 1938. The most widely the word has been used in the United States after the speech John F. Kennedy April 12, 1959, embedded a spectacular turnover in his speech in Indianapolis. In Chinese, the word crisis consists of two characters. One means "danger" and the other represents "opportunity." This misconception continued to live through the efforts of Richard Nixon and other politicians, brilliant eloquence in public. Since then, the crisis in the Chinese language..." has become a favorite tool of American business consultants and experts in motivation and also gained popularity in educational institutions, politics and the press. For example, in 2007, U.S. Secretary of state Condoleezza rice mentioned it during middle East peace talks. Former Vice President al Gore used the "crisis" several times, including during his speech, the Nobel laureate. Benjamin Zimmer argues that although this phrase and convenient as a rhetorical device, as well as a very cheerful and optimistic, partly it is an attempt to wishful thinking. "Danger" in Chinese-wéixiǎn 危险, "opportunity" — 机会 jīhuì. These two certainly different words are used by the Chinese themselves, so that the "crisis" in Chinese is not a combination of danger and opportunity. The fact that "veitsi" contains elements of both words — an accident, as well as in the Russian language, for example, "control" and "contract" are not synonymous. Chinese philologist Victor Herbert Mayr from the University of Pennsylvania argues that the popular interpretation of "veitsi" as "danger" and "opportunity" is too broad "public" interpretation. While Wei (危) means "dangerous" or "critical", the element JI (机) has quite a few meanings. Its main sense is a "critical point". Wu hung, a Chinese scholar from the University of Chicago, says that originally "veitsi" didn't mean "crisis". "JI has a range of values, including the possibility, but also danger, too," he says. When in the third century, the Chinese began to use the word "veitsi", it simply means danger — sense was emphasized by both characters. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that a combination of "danger" and "opportunity" is our own, independent from language and culture to the interpretation of the word "crisis". So let us believe and hope that any adversity and hardship in the future will only lead to wonderful opportunities, and risk will be spared!