U 1 Gauge Field
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Gauge theories are important as the successful field theories explaining the dynamics of elementary particles . Quantum electrodynamics is an abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) and has one gauge field, the electromagnetic four-potential , with the photon being the gauge boson. The Standard Model is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1) × SU(2) × SU(3) and has a total of twelve gauge bosons: the photon , three weak bosons and eight gluons .

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2017 Dodge Challenger. The latest version of the Dodge Challenger was released back in 2008. While keeping its recognizable outlines throughout many years, this coupe has remained one of the best-selling vehicles of its class. In last two years, Dodge have sold around 120,000 exemplars of the Challenger. Now, it seems that time has come for the car to get some refreshments. Indeed, aiming to attract more interest for the model, recently, Dodge gave it some new elements like the updated interior and Hellcat drivetrain. For 2017, the Chrysler Corporation is going to upgrade the Challenger again. The main innovation is that the Challenger will receive all-wheel-drive. Moreover, the new car will be the first American sport coupe that will obtain this kind of transmission. As far as the drivetrain, the car is considered to have a letdown because the base SXT version will be offered with a 3.6-liter V6 engine instead of the V8 motor. The power unit is able to deliver up to 305 hp as well as 260 lb-ft of torque. The interior technology part will feature the Unconnect infotainment system. It offers control via an 8.4-inch sensor display with enhanced resolution as well as more powerful processing chipsets. In addition, it allows connection of Apple and Android mobile gadgets. However, for the new Challenger, the V8 engine option will also be available. This motor will be installed into the R/T versions. This 5.7-liter power unit can produce almost 375 hp, while the torque is measured in 480 lb-ft. Another optional V8 with displacement of 6.4 liters will power the T/A 392 trim. It will give the car over 480 horsepower. And finally, the most powerful unit of the 8-cylinder family, that the Hellcat trim will receive, will be a 6.2-liter motor with amazing capacity of 707 hp. These engines will be coupled with a six-speed manual. Some versions can receive an eight-speed automatic gearbox as well.